Wednesday, 1 June 2011

The test program

This is the program I wrote and uploaded to the Arduino. For my car the steering servo has the range of 48 (full left) to 112 (full right) and 80 is about centre. The electronic speed controller has a range of 0 (full power) to 180 (full brake) and I found 80 makes the car drive at its slowest. Finally my servo to sweep the infra red sensor has a range from 0 to 160 to do a 180 degree sweep with 80 being centre. If you are doing this on your own car then you will need to figure these ranges out.

All Arduino programs need to have setup() and loop() functions (see the Arduino website). Since I am using an electronic speed controller I have treated it as a servo.

This code can be copied and pasted in to the Arduino software and uploaded to the Arduino.


 #include <Servo.h>

Servo sweeper;          // create servo object to control the sweeping servo 
Servo motor;            // create servo object to control the motor 
Servo steering;         // create servo object to control the steering 
float distance[161];    // store the distance from the infra red sensor
boolean driving=false;  // a flag so the car knows if it is moving or not

void setup()
{
  sweeper.attach(6);    // attaches the servo on pin 6 to the servo object 
  motor.attach(3);      // attaches the servo on pin 3 to the servo object 
  steering.attach(9);   // attaches the servo on pin 5 to the servo object 

  Serial.begin(115200); // sets the speed of the serial connection to the computer

  sweeper.write(80);    // sets the sweeper servo to the centre
  motor.write(180);     // 0 full power, 82 power starts to 180 full brake
  steering.write(80);   // sets the steering servo to the centre

  // 10 second countdown to start
  for(int i=10;i>0;i--) {
    Serial.println(i);  // print to the computer when the USB cable is connected
    delay(1000);        // 1 second delay
  }
}

// This runs continuously on the arduino
void loop() {

  // find the space in front of the car
  check_front();

  //decide what to do
  if(distance[80]>79) {  // if there is more than 79cm in front then...
    if(driving==false) {    // if the car thinks it is stopped then ...
      Serial.println("Driving forwards...");
      //drive forwards
      if(steering.read()!=80) { // if the steering servo is not set in the centre then move it to centre
        steering.write(80);        // sets the steering servo to centre
        delay(1000);                // wait one second for this to happen
      }
      motor.write(80); // move very slowly
      driving=true;    // set the driving flag to true
      Serial.println("driving");
    }
  }
  else {
    if(driving==true) {// if the car thinks it is moving then ...
      Serial.println("Stopping...");
      motor.write(180); // switch the brake on
      driving=false;    // set the drving flag to false
      Serial.println("stopped");
    }
 
    //Scan left and right
    scan();
 
    if(distance[0]>(distance[160]-1) && distance[0]>79) { // if there is more space on the right than the left 
      Serial.println("Turning Right...");
      if(steering.read()!=112) {  // if the steering servo is not set to full right then
        steering.write(112);        // sets the steering servo to full right
        delay(1000);                 // wait one second for this to happen
      }
      motor.write(80);           // move very slowly
      delay(1000);                 // wait one second for this to happen
      steering.write(80);       // sets the steering servo to centre
      delay(1000);               // wait one second for this to happen
      driving=true;               // set the driving flag to true
      Serial.println("driving");
    }
    else if(distance[160]>(distance[0]-1) && distance[160]>79) {
      Serial.println("Turning Left...");
      if(steering.read()!=48) {  // if the steering servo is not set to full left then
        steering.write(48);        // sets the steering servo to full left
        delay(1000);                 // wait one second for this to happen
      }
      motor.write(80);            // move very slowly
      delay(1000);                 // wait one second for this to happen
      steering.write(80);         // sets the steering servo to centre
      delay(1000);                 // wait one second for this to happen
      driving=true;                 // set the driving flag to true
      Serial.println("driving");
    }
    else {
      // if it can't go forwards, left or right then wait
      Serial.println("I'm Stuck!...");
    }
  }

}

void scan() { // 180 degree scan in front of the car

  Serial.println("Scanning...");

  int cw[161];      // this array will sort the ADC reading in one direction
  int acw[161];    // this array will sort the ADC reading in the other direction
  int reading;       // used for taking the averages
  float dist;          // used for calculating the distance in cm

  if(sweeper.read()!=0) {  // if the servo is not right then
    sweeper.write(0);        // set the servo to full right
    delay(sweeper.read()*10); // wait until this is done
  }

  //read in first direction  
  for(int pos=0;pos<161;pos++) {
    sweeper.write(pos);  //set the servo position
    delay(10);                 //wait until done
    reading=0;                // needs to start at 0 and then 6 readings will be added to it
    for(int i=0;i<6;i++) {
      reading+=analogRead(0); // read from analog input 0
      delay(1);                          // wait one millisecond
    }
    cw[pos]=reading/6;           // finally average the 6 reading and put in the first array
  }

  //reading in the second direction
  for(int pos=160;pos>-1;pos--) {
    sweeper.write(pos);               //set the servo position
    delay(10);                               //wait until done
    reading=0;                               // needs to start at 0 and then 6 readings will be added to it
    for(int i=0;i<6;i++) {
      reading+=analogRead(0);      // read from analog input 0
      delay(1);                             // wait one millisecond
    }
    acw[pos]=reading/6;         // finally average the 6 reading and put in the second array
  }

  //take the average and convert to distance
  for(int i=0;i<161;i++) {
    dist=12343.85*pow(((cw[i]+acw[i])*0.5),-1.15);  // this formula averages the values of the 2 arrays and 
                                                                                  // calculates the distance 
    if(dist<10) { // the infra red sensor is unreliable below 10 cm so set it to 0cm
      dist=0;
    }
    if(dist>80) { // the infra red sensor is unreliable above 80 cm so set it to 80cm
      dist=80;
    }
    distance[i]=dist;  // put the value dist in to the distance array which contains the actual distances in cm
    Serial.print(i);
    Serial.print(" distance = ");
    Serial.println(distance[i]);   // this is sent to the computer serial monitor to check
  }

  sweeper.write(80); // set the servo back to the centre 
  delay(1000);          // wait one second until it is done

}

void check_front() { //just check in front of the car

  Serial.println("Checking Front...");

  int reading;      // used for taking the averages

  if(sweeper.read()!=80) { // if the steering servo is not set in the centre then move it to centre
    sweeper.write(80);
    delay(abs(sweeper.read()-80)*10);
  }

  //take the readings
  reading=0;  // this code is the same as in the scan() function with no sweep
  for(int i=0;i<6;i++) {
    reading+=analogRead(0);
    delay(1);
  }
  float dist = 12343.85*pow((reading/6),-1.15);
  if(dist<10) {
    dist=0;
  }
  if(dist>80) {
    dist=80;
  }
  distance[80]=dist;  // but the result is put in the centre position in the distance array
  Serial.print("80 distance = ");
  Serial.println(distance[80]);

}

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